Oregon Strawberry Commission
Research Progress Report

1994 - 1995


Development of New Strawberry Cultivars
for the Pacific Northwest


PROJECT LEADER:
Patrick P. Moore, Associate Horticulturist
WSU Puyallup Research and Extension Center


PROJECT STATUS: Continuing (indefinite)

OBJECTIVES:

  1. High yields of large, firm fruit suitable for processing and/or fresh market outlets.
  2. Increased disease resistance, including fruit rots and aphid-transmitted virus diseases.

PROGRESS:

Ninety crosses were made in 1994. Sixteen of the crosses were directed toward spider mite, aphid, or weevil resistance including some crosses with F. chiloensis from Chile. Thirteen crosses were made with Chilean F. chiloensis identified by Scott Cameron as having many flowers. Most of the remaining crosses used a large fruited firm clone crossed with a Pacific Northwest clone. Seedlings from these crosses will be planted in 1995 and evaluated in 1996. Over 3,200 seedlings from the 1993 crosses were planted at Puyallup for evaluation in 1995. Eighteen clones were planted in a replicated June bearing selection trial. An additional 46 clones were planted in single plots, including 21 selections from the BC program, 8 from the Ontario program, and others from California and eastern US and Canadian programs. Twenty one selections were made among the 2,163 seedlings planted at Puyallup in 1993. In that planting WSU 1988, WSU 2187 and BC 77-2-72 were crossed with a series of large fruited firm clones. The best parents were WSU 1988, WSU 2187, BC 77-2-72, Oso Grande and 137A84 (a selection from the Ontario program). Four of the selected seedlings were selected only for breeding purposes and will not be placed into replicated plots. All of the remaining 17 selections have been placed into micropropagation for virus therapy and multiplication.

The 1993 selection trial was harvested for the first time in 1994 (Table 1). The highest yielding clone was WSU 1988 with 17.5 t/a of marketable yield and a total yield of 23.4 t/a. WSU 1988 was released this year as Puget Reliance. Other promising selections were WSU 2211 and WSU 2253. WSU 2211 had extremely large fruit averaging over 20 g over the season with fruit from the first harvest averaging over 40 g. WSU 2211 is very dark and soft. It has potential for juice or puree use. WSU 2253 was very early, very firm and difficult to cap. It has potential for fresh market. ORUS 1077-47 and ORUS 917-123 produced high yields of firm fruit late in the season.


The plantings established in 1992 at Mt Vernon (Table 2) and Puyallup (Table 3) were harvested for the second time in 1994. Both virus free (VF) and virus infected plants of Puget Reliance had total yields over 20 t/a. BC 86-22-33 was very vigorous both at Mt Vernon and Puyallup. There was a severe root weevil infestation at the Puyallup planting and because of the uneven damage, the data was not analyzed statistically. Notching was not uniform over the entire planting, but all clones were susceptible to weevils (Table 4). However, there were differences among clones in vigor after weevil attack (Table 4). Two of the most vigorous clones, BC 84-15-161 and BC 86-30-56 were used as parents in 1994 and BC 86-22-33 will be used in 1995.




SUMMARY:

WSU 1988 was released as a new cultivar in 1994. It is large fruited, productive and extremely virus tolerant. In tests at Puyallup and Mt Vernon there was no decrease in yield or fruit size with virus infection. There are two selections that were harvested for the first time in 1994, that have potential for release. WSU 2211 is very large fruited, very dark, but soft. It has potential for juice or puree use. WSU 2253 was very early fruiting, very firm, but difficult to cap. It has potential for fresh market. ORUS 1077-47 and ORUS 917-123 were late fruiting, high yielding and had firm fruit at Puyallup.